Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the most common type of tumor among the female population in Europe, America and some Asian countries. More than one million cases are reported worldwide each year, and with an average life expectancy of 80 years, the risk of breast cancer is 12.5%. Over the past 20 years, the world has seen a steady increase in the incidence of this type of cancer, especially in cities and metropolitan areas. Since 1985, it has been ranked first among oncological diseases among women, accounting for 31.2%. It is well known that annual preventive examinations contribute to the early detection of tumours. However, patients often see a doctor with clear signs of the tumor, which makes follow-up treatment difficult. One of the reasons for this is the lack of understanding of the importance of early diagnosis of the disease. Scientists have now penetrated deeply into the mechanisms of cancer cells, although much is still unclear. Like other cancers, breast cancer is still insidious and aggressive.



Risk factors that can trigger tumor development include hormonal imbalances, childlessness and childlessness, Very late first births, early onset and late termination of menstruation, mastopathy, smoking and alcohol addiction, Obesity as well as frequent stress, hypertension, uterine and ovarian inflammation, atherosclerosis, hypotheriosis and liver disease. But cancer can sometimes be found in patients who are not in any of these risk groups.


Alarming symptoms

The development of breast cancer is preceded by the growth of its tissue of hyperplasia and the appearance of atypical cells in the ducts of the gland. These changes are called precancerous. This includes the mentioned mastopathy - cystic-fibrous and diffuse changes in breast tissue. The appearance of the first signs of mastopathy, detected by palpation, i.e. a cautious palpation of the gland, is a reason to consult a mammologist. Mammography and ultrasound are the main methods of early detection of breast tumors and mastopathy. The results of these tests are often confirmed by breast puncture, when a sample of a suspected tumor taken by a needle syringe is examined under a microscope.

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Hormonal therapy:

Postmenopausal hormone therapy, slightly increases the risk only after 3 years of use. Pure estrogen alone does not increase the risk of breast cancer. Selective estrogen receptor modulators reduce the risk of developing breast cancer.


Nutrition can contribute to breast cancer, but there is no evidence that changing nutrition will reduce the risk of developing cancer. Patients with abnormally late menstruation may have a lower risk of developing cancer.

Family history:

The presence of 1st degree relatives with breast cancer increases the risk by a factor of 2 or 3. affects the risk of developing this disease. If ≥ 2 closest relatives of the 1st line have breast cancer, the risk of the disease may increase 5-6 times.

The first stage of the disease

It's a single tumor up to 2 cm in size that has no regional metastases. They are located in lymph nodes, in the vicinity of the affected organ - in the armpit hole.

The second stage of the disease

Tumor up to 2 cm or more, but often with a single metastasis in the armpit hole. The more cancer is in the body, the more harmful cells travel through our bodies.

Stage three of the disease

The tumor does not reach 3-4 cm, but has multiple metastases in the axillary fossa. Or a tumor with a nodular shape of 5-10 cm.

Stage four of the disease

The most dangerous stage is a tumor of any size that has metastases to other organs and tissues: bones, liver, lungs, brain.